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Christian Aid in Kenya

Kenya has a population of 43 million people and is the biggest economy in eastern Africa.

The country's weather patterns are erratic with vast regions of arid and semi-arid land, yet three quarters of the population are dependent on agriculture.

According to official figures, of the 16 million unemployed Kenyans, 80% are young people.

Despite the economy's growth in recent years its impact on poverty reduction has been far from significant. Rather, it is aggravating inequality.

Kenya is among the top 10 most unequal societies in the world, with the richest 10% owning more than 40% of the land and resources, and the poorest 10% a mere 1%.

A quarter of the population lives on US$1 a day and two thirds on less than US$2.

The majority of people in Kenya’s cities live in informal settlements or slums, with poor access to basic services like water and sanitation, schools and healthcare. 


There is an unequal distribution of political, social and economic power in Kenya as a result of the strong link between wealth accumulation and the state since gaining independence.

Despite the unchanging political context and the power struggle between different elite groups, Kenyan citizens have achieved far-reaching civil and political rights. The devolved governance system presents the greatest opportunity for Kenya to improve access to services, and accelerate inclusive development.

The new Kenyan constitution allows people to participate in political processes and upholds the rights of all Kenyans to healthcare, housing, sanitation, food, safe water, social security and education.

Tax and governance

Kenya has the highest tax expenditure in the region, but exemptions for business elites and incentives to foreign investors, which have few economic and social benefits, cost the country more than $1 billion each year.

Tax evasion and avoidance, corruption, and misuse of public funds are a huge drain on resources. Without accountable governance at both national and county levels, it will be difficult for Kenya to realize its development aspirations.


Good health is essential for development, but maternal and child mortality rates are high in Kenya, as are communicable and preventable diseases such as malaria, HIV and tuberculosis, particularly among women and children, and non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and cancer.

Malnutrition and diseases caused by poor sanitation and hygiene practices make the situation worse. Many people do not have access to quality health services.

Climate change

Kenya continues to experience increasing vulnerability to disasters resulting in severe displacements and human suffering.

Droughts and intermittent floods are becoming more frequent and increasingly severe. With each drought, pastoralists and smallholder farmers lose a large percentage of their assets.

The increasing scarcity of resources – including food and water – leads to more conflicts between communities, which hampers long-term development.

Christian Aid Kenya’s vision is of a fair, resilient and thriving society in which all citizens are able to lead a decent, dignified life.

We work with our partners to empower people to hold government to account and to understand and claim their rights.

Our work with communities is underpinned by advocacy, community capacities and enabling environments – around health, accountability governance, and tax evasion and resilient livelihoods – at grassroots and national level which seek to challenge and change the systems and structures that keep people poor.

Further content

  • Tax in Kenya: 'The price of civilisation' : listen to Alvin Mosioma, director of the Tax Justice Network, Africa, about how tax could lift millions of Kenyans out of a cycle of poverty and hunger.
  • Rooting for Resilience: Christian Aid and Anglican Development Services – Eastern (formerly Ukamba Christian Community Services), supported by the UK government, are helping communities in Makueni County, Kenya, to become resilient to drought, develop profitable flourishing livelihoods and reduce conflict.